Root canal therapy or endodontic treatment is a procedure performed when the pulp (the part of the tooth consisting of nerve and blood supply) becomes infected or inflamed. This infection or inflammation can be the result of caries, multiple dental procedures and trauma. The procedure consists of removing the affected pulp and filling it with an inert material. Root canal therapy is often followed by the placement of a crown. This procedure allows patients to keep their natural teeth for chewing and biting for years to come.